Anal Cancer Screening and Prevention
1. Guidelines for Screening
Human papilloma virus: About 90% of anal cancers occur in patients with HPV infection. Of these, HPV-16 or HPV-18 can be detected in 90%. Other HPV-related cancers, including vulvar, vaginal and cervical cancer, increase risk 3-fold. Also oral/pharyngeal cancer.
Smoking: Current smokers have a 2-3-fold increase in risk of developing anal cancer
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia
Anal PAP smears (similar to those used in cervical cancer) for patients with risk factors. The test should be repeated yearly in HIV-positive men who have sex with men, and every 2 - 3 years if the men are HIV-negative
Patients with abnormal results should be referred for a biopsy. If anal intraepithelial neoplasia is detected, this condition should be referred for treatment.
2. Cancer Prevention
Vaccination with Gardisil® before exposure to HPV prevents infection by some strains of HPV and reduced the incidence of anal intraepithelial neoplasm, a precancer lesion for anal cancer, in men having sex with men by 50-75%.
Use of condoms may prevent infection.
Strang Cancer Prevention Institute has developed and updates guidelines for cancer screening and best practices for cancer prevention. Strang is synonymous with cancer screening and prevention. Strang was the first medical facility to introduce the Pap test into clinical practice which has saved millions of women's lives worldwide. Strang was opened by first lady Eleanor Roosevelt in 1933